What size paddocks?
In spring and autumn cows are usually allocated grass on a 12 hour basis. During the summer months farmers are allowing three grazing's per paddock. A cow will eat about 17kg grass dry matter so the allowance per paddock for three grazing's should be 26kg per cow. If the ideal per grazing cover is 1,400 then paddock size can be calculated: 100 cows x 26kg per cow = 2,600kg required divided by 1,400 ideal cover = 1.85 ha paddocks (4.6 acres).
What is appropriate roadway for cows?
Elements of good roadway include: Appropriate width (100 cows - 4 meters wide, 200 cows - 5 meters). Smooth surface, cross fall to shed water, raised above the grazing area and corners with sweeping curves. Construction costs can vary, from 15€ to 30€ per metre, depending on the costs of materials, width and method of construction.
What size water troughs are required?
Nine litres per cow (two gallons) should be available in the paddock per cow with a flow rate of 0.2 litres/minute per cow (20 litres/minute/100 cows).
What size water pipes?
Ideally a loop system with 1 ¼ or 1 ½ inch pipes is required.