Digesting the Research- How do fruit and veg affect our digestive system?
Every cell in our body requires fuel to function. When we eat food, we get energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins – these are called macronutrients. On top of that, food, especially fruit and veg, have a number of other micronutrients. Find out What’s New in Fruit & Veg from Teagasc scientists
Every cell in our body requires fuel to function. When we eat food, we get energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins – these are called macronutrients. On top of that, food, especially fruit and veg, have a number of other micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals that help the immune system and give us healthy skin, hair and bones. The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food to release these nutrients, so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream and delivered to where they are needed.
Fruit and vegetables are an excellent source of both macro- and micronutrients and are also key to a healthy digestive system. Fibre from fruit and vegetables such as oranges and carrots stimulate the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract. Meanwhile, vegetables such as chickpeas and spinach are good sources of protein, which are the building blocks of our cells and muscles.
Studying the Digestive Tract
At Dr André Brodkorb’s lab at Moorepark, Teagasc food scientists and PhD students study the digestive tract in detail, in order to understand the body’s physiological response to different foods and how the food matrix affects digestion. However, studies on the digestive system can require invasive, difficult or sometimes unsuitable methods. Teagasc researchers, alongside the worldwide Infogest network, have developed a lab-based experiment of food digestion. This allows them to study the digestion of various food types and analyse end-products such as amino acids, fatty acids and sugars, all while using common lab equipment and chemicals.
The Gut Barrier
Once the food is digested, the nutrients must pass from the digestive system into the bloodstream. This process is called absorption and it mostly takes place in the small intestine. The gut barrier is the gatekeeper between the digestive tract and the bloodstream. In the small intestine, this barrier is paper thin, but the cells are tightly packed together so large food molecules, toxins and bacteria cannot enter the bloodstream. The junction between cells is called the tight junction and its effectiveness can be affected by the food we eat.
At Dr Linda Giblin’s lab at Moorepark, Teagasc scientists are studying the response of the gut barrier to digested food samples, including proteins from plant-based sources. If the tight junction acts like a sieve, letting the food molecules through, then it indicates that the food has had a negative effect on the gut barrier. However, foods like probiotic yoghurts, broccoli, carrots and strawberries are examples of those that strengthen the tight junction and promote gut health.
“Sustainable, Nutritious and Delicious- What’s New in Fruit and Veg?” - Online Event
To learn more about the digestive system, and Teagasc’s research in this area, register for “Sustainable, Nutritious and Delicious- What’s New in Fruit and Veg?” on Thursday, November 11th at 11am. This online event is part of Teagasc’s Festival of Farming and Food for Science Week 2021.
Join Teagasc for a series of exciting virtual events for Science Week (November 7-14) as part of ‘The Festival of Farming and Food. Join our events on Zoom and get a chance to put your questions to our scientists in our live Q&As. Register here.
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