TResearch Winter 2018
Bacteriophages in Food Production
Bacteriophages in Food Production
Infrastructure: an unbeatable investment
Factsheets from the Energy in Agriculture event, 21 August 2018
Alpacas are a gentle and intelligent breed of South American camel. Alpacas have a gestation period of 11.5 months and produce just one offspring per year (cria). They generally live 15 to 20 years. Alpacas are kept mostly for their fleece, however, because of their affectionate nature, many people also buy them as pets. They are specially suited to harsh climates and therefore they are generally healthy, easy to care for and disease free.
Deer farming commenced at Kildalton College in 1986 with the purchase of a herd of 20 cervus sika nipon and sika red crossbreds. At the time 2.74 ha of grassland were fenced with 1.9m chain link wire netting and the area was divided into four paddocks using five strands of electric fencing.
Ice cream is a frozen dairy desert, manufactured by freezing and aerating a pasteurised mixture of ingredients including milk products, sugars, emulsifiers, stabilisers, flavouring compounds and water. Since the turn of the century and the development of the ice cream cone, the growth in consumption has been phenomenal with over 12bn. litres of ice cream consumed world-wide each year. Composition of ice cream varies from product to product with an average composition of 12% milk fat, 11% non fat milk solids, 15% sugar and 0.3% stabiliser/emulsifier.
Organic produce is one of the few expanding markets in the food and farming sector. This expansion is consumer driven. The greatest demand is for fruit and vegetables but this follows through to a much wider range of products, i.e., dairy products, meat, processed foods etc. Market surveys in Europe and all over the world show a huge scope for expansion in organic produce.
Yoghurt is a fermented milk, which has its origins in Eastern Europe, but is now consumed throughout the world. The French called it 'la lait de la vie eternelle' - the milk of eternity as it was believed to have therapeutic powers and gave long life to those who consumed it.
The world wide demand for chocolate confectionery is increasing, with the EU being the world’s largest confectionery producer. Estimated total EU consumption of all chocolate confectionery was in excess of 2m tonnes with a retail value of €19bn (£15bn). In Ireland we produce more than 35,000 tonnes of chocolate products annually which is an increase of almost 20% over the last decade. Ireland lies 5th behind the Swiss in the consumption of chocolate spending nearly 60 ECUs per capita.
The production of quality Irish farmhouse cheese has expanded over the last number of years to the extent that we now have over thirty members of Cais, the umbrella group for Irish farmhouse cheese producers. As a country we import over 18,000 tonnes of cheese per annum much of which is in the specialist sector and yet our farmhouse production accounts for only 1,000 tonnes. There would seem to be considerable room for expansion should we be able to substitute native cheeses for some of our imports. Consumption of cheese in Ireland has increased by more than 40% in the last decade to a per capita figure of slightly less than 6 kgs. Yet this is only 30% of that consumed in Germany and France.
There are two distinct types of butter, sweet cream butter, which makes up the majority of the butter produced today and lactic or ripened butter made from bacteriologically soured cream. Butter can also be classified according to salt content: unsalted, salted or extra salted.
A visitor attraction is a valuable addition to a holiday experience in an area. It can provide the vital component which is ‘something-to-do’ in the locality. A good tourism attraction can have huge drawing-power, serving as a catalyst and motivator for tourists to travel to a particular destination. Some good examples in Ireland are the Blarney Stone, Aillwee Caves, Ceide Fields, Book of Kells, Altamont Gardens, Dan O’Hara Farm, Newgrange Farm, Newgrange Passage grave, Cliff of Moher and Dunlewey Visitor Attraction.